Total knee replacement is a surgical procedure in which the damaged joint is replaced with a prosthesis, or artificial joint. The prosthesis is designed to move like a normal joint.
Complete knee prostheses are one of the greatest advances in orthopaedic surgery this century. Their design and use are due to the work of orthopaedic surgeons who, in collaboration with a team of engineers, developed the techniques and materials used.
The new joint is made up of several parts: a metal part is attached to the femur, and a smaller metal part is attached to the tibia. A high-density polyethylene spacer acts as the cartilage of the new joint. In addition, a circular piece of polyethylene serves as a replacement for the articular surface of the patella.
This operation takes approximately two hours and is usually performed under spinal anaesthesia.